According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are 400 types of mental disorders. Here are profiles of five, the most common in the world.
First of all, you should know that mental disorders are grouped into five blocks. The first three encompass those described later:
Affective disorders (depression and dysthymia)
Anxiety disorders (phobias, anxiety, somatization, etc.)
Psychotic disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, etc.)
Disorders related to the elderly (dementia, sleep disorders, etc.)
It can occur after a big disappointment, the loss of something valuable or someone important, long physical illness or alcohol and drug abuse. It may also have a biological origin, i.e. caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain.
I do not have to report all but the most patients show at least five of the following:
Unhappiness most of the time.
The sadness is so intense that it interferes with daily life.
Loss of interest in life and do not enjoy anything.
Feeling of being exhausted yet, restless and agitated.
You lose interest in sex.
Between 10 and 15% of the population will have depressive symptoms in their lifes.
It is important to stay close to loved ones and face the problem that caused the depression by speaking.
In the depression a psychiatric complication is the most serious: suicide, so it is essential to treat it.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). It helps overcome negative thoughts. They are interpersonal and dynamic.
Psychotherapy. Talk to an expert can help express feelings. The process may vary from 5-30 sessions before the patient fully recovers.
Anxiety, panic and phobias
Panic and phobias affect one in ten people at some point in life. According to SEP, anxiety is a normal feeling of fear in difficult situations but, if too strong, it can paralyze the person.
Panic is a sudden and unexpected increase of anxiety; in response, you want out of the situation that caused it. Meanwhile, phobia is a fear of situations or things that are not dangerous and that most people do not find troublesome.
Anxiety. The patient feels worried all the time, tired, irritable and sleep poorly. Physical symptoms such as pain, tremors, deep breath, dizziness, fainting, indigestion and diarrhea.
Panic. It comes as a feeling of fear and sudden loss of control. The breathing rate increases, the heart beats hard, sweat and thoughts of death appear.
Phobia. It comes as anxiety but only on specific occasions. If a person afraids of dogs at a level of phobia, be sure that your routine revolves around a safe environment. If left untreated, eventually fear dominates the life of the person.
Anxiety may be a symptom of drug such as LSD, amphetamines or ecstasy.
Threatening circumstances during the life of a person can cause anxiety, panic or phobia, such as a car accident. Anxiety has prevalence between 1% and 5% of the population.
Psychotherapy. Talking to a professional is helpful to understand the problem and fix it.
Medication. Sometimes the use of tranquilizers such as Valium is recommended, but can be very addictive, so it should only be for a couple of weeks and under medical attention.
Antidepressants also work, but they have side effects such as nausea, drowsiness, dizziness, dry mouth and constipation.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD)
Obsessions are thoughts that appear yet love them, do not make sense and can be unpleasant while compulsions are acts that people think you have to do even when you do not want.
The mental patient lives worried about their seizures and not make them affect you greatly. A person spends much of the day to the compulsive point of interfering with daily activities.
It affects people of all ages. The cause is unknown, but doctors believe it is linked with an imbalance of serotonin, a chemical produced by the brain.
Behavioral therapy. It helps to control affected compulsion recognizing it as just keeping a diary to see how often is performed.
Medication. Substances such as fluoxetine and clomipramine are used, both acting on serotonin.
Although 70% of those with OCD often worsen conditions when quitting the drug. It is recommended to combine the therapy.
Post Traumatic Stress
It occurs after you got trauma. Although many people overcome without help, there are others who channeled it to the extent of having physical symptoms that affect their daily lives.
Symptoms can appear after days, weeks and sometimes even years after the fact.
Constant nightmares or flashbacks of the traumatic situation are presented.
The victim remains “guard” and believes that the risk return at any time.
Physically patients may have diarrhea, muscle aches, headache, depression and abuse of drugs, including painkillers.
Having gone through a tragedy is normal to have some of these symptoms, but one in three individuals is unable to overcome with the passage of time and requires help.
In children, stress can occur in their games, where often recreate the traumatic event over and over again.
During the suffering of this disorder, adrenaline remains at high levels, and the person can’t relax.
EMDR (eye movement desensitization and reprocessing). It is a technique that uses eye movements to help the brain to process flashbacks and to make sense of the traumatic experience.
Medication and group therapy. Both are listed by the SEP as among the most effective. Among the recommended medications are antidepressants.
The abuse of legal or illegal substances is related to various mental disorders, from depression to psychosis. Here, the disease can lead to addiction or viceversa.
Dependence on one or several substances that keep patients from their reality.
Apathy and disinterest in life and loved ones.
Depression and even attempted suicide.
Psychosis, ie, delirious and hallucinatory not always heal.
People who become addicted to a substance are likely to have genetic biological conditions that make them more vulnerable.
In young, it affects the psychological development and social adaptation.
Tthe prevalence of daily smokers is below 30%, while Illegal drugs have a prevalence of 3%.
Group therapy and rehabilitation to achieve total abstinence from drug use. It is important to visit a specialist if you suspect that you have mental illness to treat it on time.